As state legislatures work to reduce prison populations and increase the use of community-based alternatives, limited knowledge exists about the service needs of those under criminal justice supervision in the community. Preliminary research indicates unusually high rates of disease, disability, and death. Health risks for this population include opioid misuse, a form of substance misuse that has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. Evidence indicates this may be one of multiple epidemics this population experiences, complicating intervention.
Our study included 5154 individuals on probation or parole. Using 2015–2020 data from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we conducted a series of logistic regressions examining associations between opioid misuse and a range of health risks, controlling for sociodemographic variables and survey year.